Leaning in doesn’t always work. If you ask for a raise and you’re female, studies suggest that your manager might be less likely to want to work with you afterward; you’ve violated gender norms. If you get offered a new job and try to negotiate better compensation, it might backfire (in extreme cases, it might even cost you your job offer).
Maybe it’s not surprising that it’s hard for women to fix gender bias at work on their own. HR departments don’t do much better: There’s basically no proof that the $8 billion that corporations spend on diversity training workshops have any effect. In some cases, they even make things worse by reinforcing stereotypes. Companies spend millions more on leadership training that also doesn’t seem to help women.